Spock was born to Sarek, a Vulcan, and Amanda Grayson, a Human, in 2232 in the city of Shi'Kahr, Vulcan.
As a young boy, Spock was often the target of abuse from his schoolmates because of his Human ancestry. On one particular occasion in which his classmates accused his father of being a traitor for marrying "that Human whore", Spock lost emotional control and was so angered that he violently beat up his tormentor, exhibiting such rage that the other two tormentors, both older and larger than Spock, made no attempt to help their friend. Previously, he had counted that the incident was the 35th time those particular schoolmates had attempted to elicit an emotional response from him. When he then spoke to his disappointed father about his mother, asking him why he married a Human, Sarek coldly remarked that his decision to marry her was the logical choice, given that he was an ambassador of Vulcan to Earth.
After completing the advanced training which he began during childhood in the learning pods, Spock applied to both the Vulcan Science Academy and Starfleet Academy. He was also considering completing his training in the kolinahr - the Vulcan ritual of purging all vestigial emotions - and asked his mother whether she would think less of him for discarding emotion in that way. His mother simply remarked that she would always be proud of him, no matter what choices he made. He later was admitted to the Vulcan Science Academy, but declined the offer after the board remarked that his admission to the Academy was especially commendable considering his "disadvantage" of being half-Human.
Spock went on to attend Starfleet Academy, and would come to be known as one of its most distinguished graduates. By 2258, he had attained the rank of commander, and acted as an instructor at the Academy.
According to his dossier at the official Star Trek movie website, Spock specialized in computer programming, with tracking toward science officer, and was instructor of advanced phonology and interspecies ethics. He was awarded the title "Grandmaster" by the Federation's Three-Dimensional Chess Organization.
During his time as an instructor at the Academy, Spock became romantically involved with Nyota Uhura, a cadet holding the rank of lieutenant specializing in xenolinguistics who was on track to become a communications officer. Commander Spock served as Cadet Uhura's instructor and judged her performance to be consistently exemplary. Spock was later in charge of starship assignments for the cadets of Uhura's graduating class, and initially assigned Lieutenant Uhura to the USS Farragut, in spite of Uhura's stated desire to serve aboard the USS Enterprise, the new flagship in order to avoid any appearance of favoritism. Uhura later confronted him about this choice, noting that she was more than qualified to serve aboard the Enterprise and that it was unfair to deny her an opportunity she would have gained had they not been involved.
It is unestablished under what circumstances Spock and Uhura entered their relationship, and it is not known if Spock was still her instructor at that time.
Spock programmed the Kobayashi Maru scenario, the purpose of which was to allow cadets to experience fear in the face of death, and, in confronting it, develop skills necessary for command. When James T. Kirk was ultimately able to pass the test, and defeat the scenario, Spock accused the cadet of inserting a subroutine into the program, changing the simulation to his favor, so he could win. At a hearing of the Academy board, Kirk asked for the right to confront Spock directly, and the two clashed over Kirk's actions.
The hearing was cut short by the receipt of a distress call from Vulcan, and Spock reported to the USS Enterprise as first officer under Captain Christopher Pike. En route to Vulcan, Spock once again clashed with Kirk, who had come aboard the Enterprise without authorization. Over Kirk's arguments that the distress call from Vulcan was the result of an attack by Romulans, Spock demanded that Kirk be removed from the bridge - but when Uhura vouched for the accuracy of a crucial element of Kirk's claims, Spock decided that Kirk was probably right, and as a result Pike ordered the ship ready before dropping out of warp. Ultimately, arrival at Vulcan, which was under attack, proved that Kirk was correct, and contact was made with the Romulan vessel Narada, which was attacking the planet. When contact was established with the ship's captain, Nero, he appeared to know Spock, although Spock had never met the Romulan before. Pike, who was ordered to transport himself to the Narada, left Spock in charge as acting captain.
Following the disabling of the Narada's drill platform, Nero launched the red matter into Vulcan's core, causing the formation of a black hole which would devour the planet. Judging from their "black hole" technology, Spock reasoned with the best of Vulcan rationality that the Narada must have traveled back in time from the future. Realizing that not much time was left to save his planet, Spock beamed to the surface to at least rescue the Vulcan Council, including his father and mother. As the survivors were about to be beamed aboard the Enterprise, the disintegrating surface on the planet collapsed beneath Spock's mother before the transport could be completed and she died. She was one of almost six billion killed with the loss of the planet.
Struggling with the loss of his world and the death of his mother, Spock received comfort from Uhura, which helped him maintain his composure. After deciding to take the Enterprise to the Laurentian system to rendezvous with the rest of the fleet, and engaging in a furious debate with Kirk which led to him employing the Vulcan nerve pinch on the acting first officer, Spock ordered Kirk to be thrown off the ship, jettisoning him in an escape pod near Delta Vega. Spock was aware of the split loyalties of Doctor Leonard McCoy, and remarked upon his dedication to duty. McCoy did not receive the Vulcan's remarks well, and rebuked him for abandoning Kirk.
With the Enterprise now at warp, Spock was surprised when Kirk and Montgomery Scott were able to beam aboard the ship, and demanded to know how they had been able to transport during warp. Kirk, who had by now met with a version of Spock who had traveled back in time with Nero, was told by this Spock - who knew from decades of experience that the conservative, by-the-book strategy his younger self would follow would doom Earth to share Vulcan's fate, while whatever unorthodox, irrational course of action Kirk would take just might save it - to sufficiently provoke Spock in order to show everyone that he was too emotionally compromised to be in command. This, in turn, would allow Kirk to take charge of the Enterprise and ensure that events unfold as they are meant. Kirk made several unsuccessful attempts to insult and cajole Spock, until finally a jibe about whether Spock had loved his mother who was murdered, made the Vulcan snap, attacking Kirk and coming extremely close to killing him. He was only stopped by his father, and Spock immediately realized what had happened, and stepped down from command, ordering McCoy to note it in the ship's log. Returning to the transporter room, Spock was comforted by the words of his father, who admitted that he actually had married Amanda because he loved her.
With the command crew debating how to beam aboard the Narada without being detected, Spock returned to duty, and endorsed Pavel Chekov's plan to hide the Enterprise in Titan's atmosphere. He then volunteered to beam to the Narada, noting that the similarities between Romulan and Vulcan language and culture would help him in determining the location of Captain Pike and determine a way to destroy the vessel. Kirk, now in command, agreed, and accompanied Spock aboard the Narada. In the Enterprise transporter room, Spock and Uhura kissed, publicly revealing their relationship in the presence of a very surprised Kirk and Scott - when told by Uhura that she would be monitoring their comm frequencies, Spock thanked "Nyota", revealing the first name Kirk had attempted unsuccessfully to learn ever since first meeting her three years prior.
After a brief phaser fight with the Romulan crew aboard the Narada, Spock was able to locate the Jellyfish and Captain Pike. On board the Jellyfish, the computer recognized him as Ambassador Spock. Spock confronted Kirk about withholding information, but Kirk would not disclose anything further, leaving Spock to take command of the Jellyfish.
Attacking the Narada from the inside, Spock escaped into Earth's orbit, and was able to destroy the drill platform as it dug into San Francisco Bay, before warping to another part of the system, with the Narada in pursuit. Spock placed the Jellyfish on a collision course with the Romulan vessel, with the Enterprise arriving in time to knock down enemy torpedoes and beam Spock, Kirk and Pike aboard as the Jellyfish was destroyed, causing the formation of a black hole within the Narada. As Kirk offered assistance to Nero and his crew, Spock reacted with surprise at Kirk's stating that such an offer was logical - the Vulcan noting that in this circumstance, he found the offer of mercy inappropriate. Ultimately, the black hole, with assistance from the Enterprise's weapons, consumed the Narada and Nero, who had refused humanitarian assistance.
Back on Earth, Spock finally met with his prime reality counterpart, who explained to him that he had wanted to make sure that Spock and Kirk became friends and shared the kind of friendship he and the other Kirk from his timeline shared; something which would ultimately define them both and was a crucial aspect of their lives. Spock had planned to resign from Starfleet and help rebuild Vulcan society, but his prime reality counterpart urged him to remain with Starfleet and to also put aside logic once in a while and do what feels right. About to join the surviving Vulcans himself, the prime Spock chose not to offer his alternate self the traditional Vulcan salute, noting that it would have been self serving; instead he wished him good luck.
With Kirk now in command of the Enterprise, Spock offered his services as First Officer, which Kirk gladly accepted.